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What is Nitroglycerin?

Nitroglycerin (NG), (alternative spelling of nitroglycerin), also known as trinitroglycerin (TNG), nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a dense, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced. It is formed by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions favorable to the formation of the nitric acid ester. Chemically, the substance is an organic nitrate compound rather than a nitro compound, but the traditional name is retained. Invented in 1847 by Ascanio Sobrero, nitroglycerin has since then been used as an active ingredient in the production of explosives, namely dynamite, and is therefore used in the construction, demolition and mining industries. Since the 1880s it has been used by armies as an active ingredient and gelatinizer for nitrocellulose in some solid propellants such as cordite and ballistite. It is an important component in double-based smokeless propellants used by reloaders. Hundreds of gunpowder combinations combined with nitrocellulose are used by rifle, pistol and shotgun reloaders.

Nitroglycerin has been used in medicine for over 130 years as a powerful vasodilator (dilation of the vascular system) to treat heart conditions such as angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. It was known at a different time that these beneficial effects were due to the conversion of nitroglycerin into nitric oxide, a powerful venodilator. It was only in 2002 that the enzyme involved in this conversion was identified as mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2).


What is Nitroglycerin used for?

Nitroglycerin can be used for the acute relief of angina (chest pain) or to prevent angina from occurring in cases where it is likely to trigger angina attacks.
Nitroglycerin works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels (especially veins) and dilating them. This helps to relieve chest pain caused by constriction of blood vessels and also lowers blood pressure by reducing how hard the heart has to work to pump blood around the body. Nitroglycerin is also the name given to a medicine.

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About Nitroglycerin

Pros of Nitroglycerin
Nitroglycerin sublingual spray or tablets can be used to relieve the symptoms of angina (chest pain) in suitable people. Nitroglycerin is also used as an injection. In this case, we use it to treat or minimize high blood pressure. It can be used before surgery, after a doctor’s approval, to control heart failure associated with a heart attack or to improve angina in patients who are vulnerable to it.

Side effects of nitroglycerin in medicine
If you are between 18 and 60 years old, not taking any other medicines or have no other medical conditions, these are the side effects you are more likely to experience:

  • Dizziness, vertigo, headache and low blood pressure may occur. This can affect a person’s ability to drive or operate machinery. Alcohol, hot weather and exercise can worsen these effects and cause fainting. Blurred vision may also occur.
  • Rarely allergic reactions, flushing, severe dizziness, headache or persistent nausea or vomiting may occur. Get emergency medical help.
  • Alcohol toxicity has been reported when high doses of nitroglycerin are injected with alcohol or when certain medicines (such as disulfiram, cephalosporin antibiotics) are taken at the same time as nitroglycerin and alcohol. Do not drink alcohol while taking nitroglycerin.