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What is Gold Chloride?

It is traditionally called auric chloride. It is one of the most common compounds of gold found in the world. It is symbolized by the formula AuCl3. The Roman numerals in the name indicate that gold has an oxidation state of +3, the most stable form of gold in its compounds. Also, chlorauric acid (HAuCl4), the product formed when gold is dissolved in king water, is sometimes rather loosely referred to as “gold chloride“, “acid gold trichloride” or even “gold(III) chloride trihydrate”.

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Gold Chloride Structure

Gold chloride is very hygroscopic and highly soluble in water and ethanol. It decomposes above 160 °C or in light and forms a variety of complexes with many ligands.
Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is a compound of gold and chlorine with the molecular formula Au2Cl6. The “III” in its name indicates that gold has a +3 oxidation state, which is typical for many gold compounds. This gold compound has little use, although it catalyzes various organic reactions. Gold(III) chloride is used in the production of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles can be formed by the reaction of gold(III) chloride and sodium tetrafluoroborate followed by coating with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide. Subsequently, washing with 1-dodecanethiol and ethanol proved to be the most efficient method to form nanoparticles. However, other methods work, such as replacing 1-dodecanethiol with dioctyl sulfide. Gold chloride is the source of the gold in this production.

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Gold Chloride Uses

Consistency in gold chloride staining is essential for anatomical analysis of sensory nerve endings. For this purpose, gold chloride staining is modified by many researchers. But it often provides inconsistent staining, making it difficult to distinguish structures and determine nerve ending distribution in large tissue samples. It requires additional steps and major changes to the modified protocol of use. Control temperature and stirring rate during tissue staining to achieve consistent staining and full solution penetration. Samples are subjected to sucrose dehydration to improve cutting efficiency. Samples are then exposed to a solution containing lemon juice, formic acid and paraformaldehyde to achieve optimum tissue transparency with minimal tissue deformity. The gold chloride impregnation time is extended 1.5 times. Gold chloride is reduced in the labrum using 25% formic acid in water for 18 hours and in the capsule using 25% formic acid in citrate phosphate buffer for 2 hours. Citrate binds the gold nanoparticles, which minimizes aggregation in the tissue. Samples should be stored in fresh ultrapure water at 4°C to slow the reduction and preserve color contrast in the tissue. Tissue samples were embedded in Tissue Tek and sectioned at 80 and 100 μm instead of using glycerin and separating the tissue as in Gairns’ modified gold chloride method. After sectioning with a cryostat, the sections are directly added to slides with gelatin substrate. Thus, staining consistency is demonstrated across the tissue sections and neural structures are clearly identified.